Alanya Castle , (Citadel) – Alanya Castle is like an abstract of the history of Alanya, which has been a popular settlement throughout history due to its location.
Built to make Alanya a protected area, which is always wanted to be seized due to its strategic importance and therefore needed to be defended, it is possible to see almost every civilization in the history of Alanya on its walls and inside the Castle, although most of the castle made in Seljuk style.
Alanya Castle, which is thought to date back to the 3rd century BC, is one of the most robust defense structures on earth.
It can be a bit tiring to walk the entire Castle, which has 6.5 kilometers of city walls. However, the excitement of discovering a symbol or an inscription hidden on its walls and doors and its spectacular view, including Cleopatra Beach, are certainly worth the effort. Moreover, this is not just a trip to the walls.
Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman artifacts are found in the inner castle section which can be described as an Open Air Museum and is thought to have been inhabited contemporarily with the history of Alanya.
Churches and chapels from the Byzantine Period
Churches and chapels from the Byzantine Period, the commercial structure Bedesten, the Masjid and Mausoleum dated 1230 bearing the name of Akşebe Sultan who was one of the first commanders of the Castle, the Seljuk palace where the remains of old buildings were used for its construction, houses and baths proving that a large population once lived here,
Red Tower: Symbol of Alanya
-more than 400 cisterns that met the water needs of the Castle, dungeons, Suleymaniye Mosque which is a 13th century work but rebuilt by Suleiman the Magnificent, and the lighthouse dated 1720 that led ships for many years are a few of the ruins you can discover.
Alanya Castle took its present form during the Anatolian Seljuk Period, the brightest years during which Alanya was the Anatolian Seljuk capital. The Red Tower, which is the symbol of Alanya, was added to city walls in this period. The tower, which is octagonal and built by Kayqubad I in 1226, is 33 meters high and takes its name from the color of its material. It has survived in a very well preserved condition and the first floor is used today as the Ethnographic Museum.
Shipyard: The only example to date
The arched structure seen near the Red Tower by the sea is the only one of its kind remaining from Seljuk period that made the Seljuks strong in the seas.
The shipyard, built by Kayqubad I, was not only used for ship building and repairing, but also producing sails and other ship equipment. The shipyard, which continued to be used until the 1960s, is now waiting for its visitors as the “Ship and Maritime Museum”.
In the 2nd century AD there were ascetic monks who had adopted seclusion alone in the Cappadocia region, especially around Göreme. Although they were independent of monasteries and churches, they were an important social community. What made Cappadocia the centre of religious thought and life in the 3rd century was the presence of clergy with powerful character.
In the following century, the region was known as the hometown of the three great clergy. These were the Bishop of Kaisareia, Basileios, his brother Gregorios of Nyssagia and Gregorios of Nazianus. Basileios, known as the ‘Great’, returned to his hometown, Kaisareia, the headquarters of the Cappadocia region, to devote himself to the monastic life. He was also effective in spreading the monastery life collectively.
A monastic life was present intensively in Göreme from 4th century AD to 13th century. There are churches, chapels, cafeterias and seating areas in almost every rock block. Today’s Göreme Open Air Museum is the place where this education system was launched. The churches were painted with two types of techniques.
The first one is painting directly on the rock surface and the second one is fresco-secco (tempera) technique. Topics covered in the church are taken from the Bible and the life of Jesus Christ. The Göreme Open Air Museum houses the Girls and Boys Monastery, St. Basil’s Church, Elmalı Church, Saint Barbara Church, Serpent Church, Malta Crusader Church, Dark Church, Saint Catherine Church, Çarıklı Church and Tokalı Church.
The archaeological site was opened to visitors in 1967.
Summer Period 1 April – 1 October Opening time: 08:00 Closing time: 19:00
Winter Period 1 October – 1 April Opening time: 08:00 Closing time: 17:00
ONCE A CHURCH, LATER A MOSQUE, AND THEN A MUSEUM MASTERPIECE OF THE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
Hagia Sophia with its innovative architecture, rich history, religious significance and extraordinary characteristics has been fighting against time for centuries, is the largest Eastern Roman Church in Istanbul. Constructed three times in the same location, it is the world’s oldest and fastest-completed cathedral. With its breathtaking domes that look like hanging in the air, monolithic marble columns and unparalleled mosaics, is one of the wonders of world’s architecture history.
IT CONTINUED TO EXIST AS A MOSQUE DURING THE OTTOMAN PERIOD
Today’s Hagia Sophia is the third building constructed in the same place with a different architectural understanding than its predecessors. By the order of Emperor Justinianos, it was built by Anthemios from Tralles (Aydin) and Isidoros from Miletos (Balat). The construction started in 532 and was completed in a period of five years and opened for worship in 537 with great ceremony. When Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror conquered the city, he converted it into his imperial mosque.
It continued its existence with the addition of Ottoman architectural elements and turned into a museum in 1935. Known for its Imperial Gate, Beautiful Gate (Splendid Door) and Marble Gate, Hagia Sophia has 104 columns, some of which are brought from ancient cities. The “Omphalion” section where the emperors were crowned stands out with marble workmanship like these pillars.
MOSAICS, SERMON CHAIRS: WELL WORTH SEEING!
Hagia Sophia fascinates people by not only with its awe-inspiring architectural design, but also by its gold-plated, silver-plated, glass, terracotta and colored stone mosaics, and the original ceiling mosaics of the 6th century with their floral and geometric motifs. The mosaics with figures following the icon ban in the 8th century especially Mother Mary depicted with child Jesus in her arms, the Archangel Gabriel and the Archangel Michael and Deisis stage mosaics must be seen. Sultan Abdulmecid’s Mosaic tughra was built between 1847 and 1849 during the restoration by the Fossati brothers.
Eight large round plates that were added during the Ottoman period are the work of famous calligrapher Kadıasker Mustafa Izzet during the reign of Sultan Abdulmecid. Two solid marble cubes in the side aisles, which can receive an average of 1250 liters of liquid, were brought from the ancient city of Bergama during the reign of Sultan Murad III.
WHILE YOU ARE HERE
The Hagia Sophia Museum is famous for its exterior as well as its interior. The mausoleums of Ottoman Sultans outside the building are among the first to visit. There are tombs of princes and mausoleums of Sultan Selim II, Sultan Murad III, Sultan Mehmed III, Sultan Mustafa I, and Sultan Ibrahim whose reigns followed one another. The four minarets of Hagia Sophia, known to be built by Mimar Sinan, the fountain of Sibyan (elementary) school, the clock room, the fountains, buttresses, the treasury building and the soup kitchen are also increasing the magnificence of the structure.
Myra Ancient City – Antalya . The ancient city of Myra, located in today’s Demre district center and its vicinity, was established on the plain of the same name. The city’s connection to the sea was provided by the channel that is accessible to the west of the Myros River (Demre Stream).
Sea transportation and trade of the region was also carried out from Andriake (Çayağzı) Port, located on the other side of the channel. The
Ancient City of Myra is especially famous for the Lycian Period rock tombs, the Roman Period theater and the Church of St. Nicholas (By Santa Claus) by the Byzantine Period.
Rock tombs, Lycian inscriptions and coins, Myra at least in BC. They show that it has existed since the 5th century. According to the information provided by Strabon, Myra, which is one of the six major cities of the Lycian League, is called as Myrrh in the Lycian inscriptions.
The 2nd century is the period when Myra
The 2nd century is the period when Myra witnessed a great development. In the city, which is the Metropolis of the Lycian Union, many buildings were built and repaired with the help of Lycian rich people. In the Byzantine Period, Myra became one of the leading cities in terms of administration as well as religion.
The fame that has survived to the present day, St. Nicholas (Santa Claus) AD. He owes the city’s bishop in the 4th century, and after his death, to reach the level of saints and to build a church in his name.
Since the 7th century
Since the 7th century, Myra lost its importance due to the earthquake, flood and the alluviums brought by the Demre Stream and the Arabian raids and turned into a village identity in the 12th century.
The ruins of today are the theater on the southern skirt of the acropolis and the rock tombs on both sides. According to the researches, it is possible to see the remains of the Hellenistic and even the fifth century BC fortification in and around the acropolis outside the walls of the Roman Period, which are quite intact today.
The theater, located on the southern skirt of the acropolis
The theater, located on the southern skirt of the acropolis, reflects the characteristics of a well-preserved Roman Period theater, both with rows of seats and the stage building. The stage building is standing until half of the second floor. There are embossed or flat rock tombs on both sides of the theater.
One of the most interesting examples is the embossed tomb, which depicts the dead and its relatives, among the Myra tombs, which are the best adapted examples of the wooden house architecture of the Lycians. Also, many rock tombs with reliefs or inscriptions are lined up or side by side on the south facing side of the rock. While going to the city center near the theater, the ruins of the baths on the left of the road are the early and interesting examples of Roman Period brick architecture.
The water requirement of the city was met with rock-cut canals on the edge of the valley where Demre Stream flows. Myra, which is one of the six cities with three voting rights in the Lycian Confederation, shows how important it is to be named as the “brightest city”. It is also important that Myra was represented in the form of Kybele, the oldest goddess of Anatolia, the main goddess of the city, in the coins printed under her name alongside the coins belonging to the Lycian Confederation
Myra, the capital of the Lycian province in the 5th century, was founded in St. Petersburg. The fact that Paul and his friends visited was also of special importance in Christianity.
Visiting Hours of Myra Ancient City Summer Period: 08: 30-19: 30 (April 15-October 2)
Visiting Hours of Myra Ancient City Winter Period: 08: 30- 17:30 (October 3-April 14)
Myra Ancient City Holidays: The first day of religious holidays until noon
It is located in Varsak Neighborhood, within the boundaries of Kepez District. Düden Waterfall is also mentioned in various sources as İskender Waterfall and Yukarı Düden Waterfall. At the same time, there are those who call Düdenbaşı Waterfall among the people.
On the 28th kilometer of the old Antalya-Burdur road, two large karst springs named Pınarbaşı emerge on the 30th kilometer of Kırkgözler. These two rivers, with plenty of water, merge after a short flow and disappear in the subalpine sinkhole. After the water disappeared in the subalpine sinkhole about 14 kilometers underground, it exits from one end of the Varsak Collapse, after a very short flow, it sinks again from the other end of the collapse.
The water lost in Varsak comes to the surface in Düdenbaşı after about two kilometers of underground flow. Even on days when no water flows from the surface, at least 10 cubic meters of water will rise to the surface from under the Düdenbaşı Waterfall. The maximum flow rate of this water is 94 cubic meters and the average is 15-16 cubic meters per second.
The water flowing from Düdenbaşı by making a waterfall from above is the water coming from the Kepez hydroelectric power plant. After Düdenbaşı, Düden Stream, which is divided into two main canals in the sheep regulator, is poured into the Mediterranean by making a waterfall from a travertine threshold at the height of 40 meters east of Antalya after 9 kilometers.
Antalya Airport Hotel transfer – Transfer is a transportation service that meets and brings you exactly where you want it: the driver welcomes you at the airport, takes you to the hotel reception or to the exact address provided.
How to get from Antalya Airport to the Hotel? There are at least four ways to reach the place you need:
Shuttle (group) or private transfer; Taxi Bus or shuttle bus.
From Antalya airport to Antalya center – Belek – Kemer – Manavgat – Side – Alanya – Tekirova – Chamyuva – Mahmutlar – Avsallar – Konaklı ..
Hadrian’s Gate (Three Doors) was built in 130 AD due to the arrival of Emperor Hadrian to Antalya. Located on Atatürk Street on the walls surrounding the ancient port and is the most important point of the entrance to Kaleiçi.
The building, also known as Three Doors among the people, is one of the best preserved and iconic historical monuments of Antalya.
Since the city walls covered the outer part of the door in time, it was not used for years, thus it has survived until today without deterioration. The building has 3 door openings with round arches.
Except for the columns, it is made entirely of white marble and decorated with magnificent carvings and reliefs. There are 2 towers on both sides of the door.
The Julia Sancta Tower in the south is from the Hadrian period and the lower part of the tower in the north is from antiquity and the upper parts were built during the Seljuk period.
It has the appearance of Roman Honor Plug with its three-eyed entrance rising on all fours and its double-faced architecture decorated with columns.
There were probably statues of the emperors and their families on Tak. However, no one of them has survived to the present day.
It is one of the must-see points in Antalya trips.
In recent years, a glass bridge made without stepping on the original stone floor under the central arch has been extended to the stairs.
Thus, both the floor was actually worn and the problem caused by the difficult walking on it was avoided, and the following floor continued to be followed with the transparent bridge.